人民网北京1月6日电(薄晨棣)2016年1月5日,推动长江经济带发展座谈会在重庆召开。习近平总书记在会上指出:“当前和今后相当长一个时期,要把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,共抓大保护,不搞大开发。”为长江经济带发展指明方向、划定航向。长江经济带在生态环境保护修复等方面取得了哪些积极进展?如何把握“保护”和“发展”的辩证关系,将挑战变为机遇?在推动长江经济带发展座谈会召开四周年之际,人民网强国论坛邀请中国人民大学长江经济带研究院院长、经济学院教授罗来军解读。

BEIJING, Jan.6(Reuters)- A forum to promote the development of the Yangtze economic belt was held in Chongqing on January 5,2016. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out at the meeting:\" at present and for quite a long time to come, it is necessary to put the restoration of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River in an overwhelming position, pay attention to the great protection together, and not engage in great development.\" pointed out the direction for the development of the Yangtze economic belt and delimited the course. What positive progress has the Yangtze economic belt made in ecological environment protection and restoration? How to grasp the dialectical relationship between \"protection\" and \"development\" and turn the challenge into an opportunity? On the occasion of the fourth anniversary of the forum on promoting the development of the yangtze economic belt, the people's net powerful country forum invited luo laijun, president of the institute for the study of the yangtze economic belt and professor of the school of economics at the people's university of china.

强国论坛:“当前和今后相当长一个时期,要把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,共抓大保护,不搞大开发。”四年后回望,从“大开发”到“大保护”的调整有何重要意义?

\"At present and for a very long time to come, it is necessary to put the restoration of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River in an overwhelming position, and pay close attention to great protection and not engage in major development. Looking back four years later, what is the significance of the adjustment from \"big development\" to \"big protection \"?

罗来军:在明确提出“共抓大保护,不搞大开发”之前,长江经济带大开发的发展思路虽然推进了经济较快发展,但也出现了一定的负面现象。比如,粗放发展方式致使资源浪费严重,长江沿岸工农业用水量巨大,万元工业增加值用水量约为全国平均水平的2倍;长江经济带金属矿产尾矿利用率仅为10%左右,远低于发达国家60%的利用率,能源资源综合利用效率仅为33%左右,比国际先进水平低近10%。同时,环境问题不容忽视:仅就长江排污而言,长江接纳的废水量位居全国七大流域首位;长江经济带亿亩耕地中,亿亩存在不同程度的土壤污染。

Luo Laijun: before clearly putting forward the idea of \"paying great attention to the protection together and not carrying out great development \", the development thinking of the great development of the Yangtze economic belt has promoted the rapid economic development, but there have also been certain negative phenomena. For example, extensive development has resulted in a serious waste of resources.The water consumption for industry and agriculture along the Yangtze River is huge, and the water consumption for industrial added value of 10,000 yuan is about twice the national average. At the same time, environmental problems cannot be ignored: only as far as the Yangtze River sewage, the Yangtze River receives the largest amount of waste water in the seven major river basins in the country; the Yangtze River economic belt 100 million mu of cultivated land,100 million mu of soil pollution in varying degrees.

从“大开发”到“大保护”的调整,一方面,为长江经济带发展立了规矩,即不能搞破坏性开发,设立了生态红线和禁令;另一方面,发展只能是绿色发展。这种调整不仅制止了危害生态环境的行为,并开始高度重视生态环境的保护和修复,推动了环境友好型高端产业的发展。

From the adjustment of \"big development\" to \"big protection \", on the one hand, it has established rules for the development of the Yangtze economic belt, that is, it cannot engage in destructive development, and has established ecological red line and ban; on the other hand, development can only be green development. This kind of adjustment not only stopped the behavior of endangering the ecological environment, but also began to attach great importance to the protection and restoration of the ecological environment, which promoted the development of the high-end industry with environmental friendliness.

罗来军:“共抓大保护、不搞大开发”的要求在实践中已经取得了显著的成效。生态环境的危害行为得以控制,生态建设水平不断提升。长江污水排放得到较好控制,很多支流以及干流段的水质得到明显改善。空气污染、土壤污染、垃圾污染等现象也得到了有效的控制,极大减少了污染行为。树林、植被、湿地的建设力度不断加强,一些地方的生态系统水平开始回升。

Luo Laijun: the requirement of \"grasping the big protection together and not carrying out the big development\" has achieved remarkable results in practice. The harmful behavior of ecological environment can be controlled, and the level of ecological construction is constantly improved. The sewage discharge from the Yangtze River is well controlled, and the water quality of many tributaries and sections of the main stream is obviously improved. Air pollution, soil pollution, garbage pollution and other phenomena have also been effectively controlled, greatly reducing the pollution behavior. The construction of forests, vegetation and wetlands has been strengthened, and the level of ecosystem in some places has begun to rise.

绿色发展势头良好,经济竞争力不断提升。长江经济带在化工围江、化工围城问题的解决上取得了一定成效,一些传统产业实现了较好的转型升级,而对于环境污染严重、技术含量不高的低端产业进行了淘汰或者搬迁处理,对新上项目加大了环保要求,不符合环保标准的项目不准上马。同时,生态农业、战略性新兴产业、服务业等清洁型经济呈现出良好的发展态势。

Green development momentum is good, economic competitiveness continues to improve. Some traditional industries have achieved better transformation and upgrading, while low-end industries with serious environmental pollution and low technical content have been eliminated or relocated. At the same time, ecological agriculture, strategic emerging industries, services and other clean economy presents a good development trend.

体制机制改革不断完善,管理协调成效不断提升。中共中央于2014年成立推动长江经济带发展领导小组后,统一性的管理机制不断地加强,地方自2015年起分别成立推动长江经济带发展领导小组,2016年12月1日,推动长江经济带发展领导小组办公室会议暨省际协商合作机制第一次会议在北京召开,会议要求相关部门及沿江各省市尽早形成有机衔接的长江经济带发展规划体系,抓紧建立健全负面清单管理制度、长江流域管理体制、长江生态保护法律制度等重要制度。直到今天,跨区域的管理协调机制都在不断地完善提升。

The reform of the system and mechanism has been improved, and the effectiveness of management coordination has been improved. Since the establishment of the leading group for the development of the Yangtze economic belt in 2014 by the CPC Central Committee, the unified management mechanism has been strengthened.The local leading group for the development of the Yangtze economic belt has been set up since 2015.On December 1,2016, the office meeting of the leading group for the development of the Yangtze economic belt and the first meeting of the inter-provincial consultation and cooperation mechanism were held in Beijing. To this day, cross-regional management coordination mechanisms are constantly improving.

罗来军:对于曾经以重污染产业为支柱产业的沿江城市走生态保护、绿色发展道路,把挑战转变为机遇,要从两个层面认识:一,通过产业转型升级或放弃污染性产业,代之发展绿色产业,对当地培育和发展可持续的长期核心竞争力和高端竞争优势是不二选择;二,产业转型升级和绿色产业的替代发展并非一蹴而就,甚至早期阶段还会降低经济增长速度,这就是所谓的“阵痛”。但是,污染的老路子是死路,没有出路;坚定地推进和发展绿色产业和高端产业,才有未来。

Luo Laijun: For the cities along the Yangtze River that have taken the road of ecological protection and green development with heavy pollution industries as their pillar industries, the challenge should be turned into an opportunity from two levels: first, through industrial transformation and upgrading or abandoning polluting industries, instead of developing green industries, it is a choice for local cultivation and development of sustainable long-term core competitiveness and high-end competitive advantages; second, industrial transformation and upgrading and alternative development of green industries are not achieved overnight, and even at an early stage will reduce the rate of economic growth. However, the old road to pollution is dead, there is no way out; firmly promote and develop green industry and high-end industry, there is a future.

对于“保护”和“发展”的关系辩证关系和彼此边界,各个城市需把握好长江经济带发展思路的四个层次:首先,要保护、修复和建设长江生态;其次,在生态优先的前提下谋划绿色发展,即发展不能破坏和干扰生态环境;再次,一些发展反过来能够促进生态建设;最后,生态建设和绿色发展倒逼产业转型升级,否则就要淘汰或搬迁。

For the dialectical relationship between \"protection\" and \"development\" and the boundary between each other, each city needs to grasp the four levels of thinking on the development of the Yangtze economic belt: first, to protect, repair and construct the ecology of the Yangtze River; secondly, to plan green development under the premise of ecological priority, that is, development cannot destroy or interfere with the ecological environment; thirdly, some development can in turn promote ecological construction; finally, ecological construction and green development will force industrial transformation and upgrading, otherwise, it will be eliminated or relocated.


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