1月2日,《反垄断法》修订草案征求意见稿(以下简称:征求意见稿)出炉。其中一大看点,是将对互联网新业态的考量纳入其中。

On 2 January, the draft revised Antimonopoly Law (hereinafter referred to as the Draft for Consultation) was published. One of the main points is to take into consideration the new form of the Internet.

在认定经营者具有市场支配地位时,《反垄断法》修订草案特别提及,“认定互联网领域经营者具有市场支配地位还应当考虑网络效应、规模经济、锁定效应、掌握和处理相关数据的能力等因素。”

When it is determined that operators have market dominant position, the Anti-monopoly Law>the revised draft specifically mentioned that``it is necessary to consider the network effect, economy of scale, locking effect, ability to master and process relevant data and so on. ``.

如果征求意见稿落定,将对互联网新业态产生哪些影响?如何认定互联网经营者滥用市场支配地位?对电商“二选一”纠纷的处置、判罚会产生哪些影响?

If the draft for comments is settled, what impact will it have on the new Internet format? How to determine that Internet operators abuse the dominant position in the market? What will be the impact on the handling and punishment of the e-commerce dispute?

同济大学法学院知识产权与竞争法研究中心兼职研究员刘旭在接受澎湃新闻()记者采访时表示,引入互联网领域经营者市场支配地位的考量要素,一定程度上反映出《反垄断法》对欧美国家相关立法实践、执法实践的借鉴,有助于我国在互联网行业实现反垄断执法“零的突破”,也有助于约束相关司法审判中法官的自由裁量权,更有利于我国互联网企业结合自身实际,合理评估单边限制竞争行为的反垄断风险。

Liu xu, a part-time researcher at the intellectual property and competition law research center of tongji university, said in an interview with the press that the introduction of the dominant factors of the market position of the operators in the internet field reflects to a certain extent the reference of the anti-monopoly law to the relevant legislative practice and law enforcement practice of the european and american countries, which is helpful for our country to realize the \"zero breakthrough\" of anti-monopoly law enforcement in the internet industry, and also helps to restrain the discretion of the judges in the relevant judicial trials, which is more beneficial to the Internet enterprises in our country to reasonably evaluate the anti-monopoly risk of restricting competition behavior in combination with their own reality.

此次征求意见稿共有八章六十四条,第三章“滥用市场支配地位”的第二十一条规定,认定经营者具有市场支配地位,应当依据该经营者在相关市场的市场份额,以及相关市场的竞争状况、该经营者控制销售市场或者原材料采购市场的能力、该经营者的财力和技术条件等因素。

Article 21 of Chapter III,\"Abusing the dominant position of the market \", stipulates that if an operator has a dominant position in the market, it shall be determined on the basis of the market share of the operator in the relevant market and the competitive situation of the relevant market, the ability of the operator to control the market for sale or purchase of raw materials, and the financial and technical conditions of the operator.

在第二十一条末尾,征求意见稿提及,“认定互联网领域经营者具有市场支配地位还应当考虑网络效应、规模经济、锁定效应、掌握和处理相关数据的能力等因素。”这是现行《反垄断法》中未直接规定的。

At the end of article 21, the draft of the request for comment mentioned that \"the determination of the dominant market position of the operators in the field of the Internet should also take into account such factors as network effect, economies of scale, lock-in effect, ability to hold and process relevant data.\" This is not directly stipulated in the current Antimonopoly Law.

刘旭告诉澎湃新闻记者,在2019年9月1日生效的《禁止滥用市场支配地位行为暂行规定》第十一条,已经先行规定了“根据反垄断法第十八条和本规定第六条至第十条规定认定互联网等新经济业态经营者具有市场支配地位,可以考虑相关行业竞争特点、经营模式、用户数量、网络效应、锁定效应、技术特性、市场创新、掌握和处理相关数据的能力及经营者在关联市场的市场力量等因素”。因此,征求意见稿引入互联网行业认定市场支配地位的考量要素,和《禁止滥用市场支配地位行为暂行规定》第十一条也是协调的。

Article 11 of the Interim Provisions on the Prohibition of the Abuse of Dominance of the Market, which came into effect on September 1,2019, has first stipulated that \"in accordance with Articles 18 of the Anti-monopoly Law and Articles 6 to 10 of these Provisions, it is established that the operators of new economic forms such as the Internet have a dominant position in the market, and may take into account the competitive characteristics of the relevant industries, the mode of operation, the number of users, the network effect, the lock-in effect, the characteristics of technology, the ability to innovate and process the relevant data and the market forces of the operators in the relevant market,\" Liu told reporters. Therefore, it is also coordinated that the draft of soliciting opinions introduces the considerations of market dominance in the Internet industry, and article 11 of the Provisional Regulations on the Prohibition of the Abuse of Market Dominance.

“如果你仔细对比,会发现此次征求意见稿的表述,比上述第十一条少了‘竞争特点’、‘经营模式’、‘用户数量’、‘技术特性’、‘市场创新’、‘经营者在关联市场的市场力量’这六项。可见,征求意见稿对这些要素,是否也纳入互联网行业市场支配地位认定上仍旧存在分歧。”刘旭说。

\"If you look closely at it, you will find that the wording of the draft is less competitive,'business model','number of users','technical characteristics','market innovation' and'market power of the operator in the associated market'. There are still differences on whether these elements are also included in the internet industry's market dominance.\" said Liu Xu.

澎湃新闻记者注意到,在2019年8月30日,国家市场监管总局召开的专题新闻发布会上,国家市场监管总局反垄断局局长吴振国曾对《禁止滥用市场支配地位暂行规定》对涉及互联网等新经济领域的问题做出回答,并将其分类为三个方面:

At a special news conference on August 30,2019, the Director of the Antimonopoly Service of the State Administration of Market Regulation, Wu Zhenguo, responded to the Provisional Regulations on the Prohibition of the Abuse of Market Dominance and categorized it into three areas:

一是明确了市场份额认定的指标范围。根据《反垄断法》规定,认定经营者是否具有市场支配地位,市场份额是重要的依据因素。关于市场份额确定,《禁止滥用市场支配地位暂行规定》明确了除销售金额、销售数量外,还包括其他指标,为更加科学地认定互联网领域经营者市场份额提供依据。

The first is to clarify the market share to determine the range of indicators. According to the Antimonopoly Law, market share is an important basis for determining whether the operator has a dominant market position. With regard to the determination of market share, the Provisional Regulations on the Prohibition of the Abuse of Dominance of the Market made clear that, in addition to the amount of sales and the quantity of sales, other indicators were included to provide a basis for a more scientific determination of the market share of operators in the Internet field.

二是规定了认定具有市场支配地位的特殊考虑因素。《禁止滥用市场支配地位暂行规定》第十一条等列举了认定互联网等新经济业态经营者具有支配地位时可以考虑的因素,有利于指导执法实践中认定互联网领域经营者是否具有市场支配地位。

The second is to determine the market dominance of the special considerations. Article 11 of the Interim Provisions on the Prohibition of Abuse of Market Dominance lists the factors that can be considered when determining that the operators of new economic forms such as the Internet have a dominant position, which is conducive to guiding the practice of law enforcement in determining whether the operators of the Internet field have a dominant market position.

三是规定了以低于成本的价格销售商品特殊情形。《禁止滥用市场支配地位暂行规定》第十五条规定认定经营者低于成本的价格销售商品,涉及互联网等新经济业态中的免费模式,应当综合考虑经营者提供的免费商品以及相关收费商品等情况,体现了对互联网等新经济业态经营特点的考虑。

The third is to provide for the sale of goods at a price below the cost of special circumstances. Article 15 of the Interim Provisions on the Prohibition of Abuse of Dominant Market Position stipulates that when determining that an operator sells goods at a price lower than the cost, the free mode in a new economic form, such as the Internet, should consider comprehensively the free commodities provided by the operator and the related fee-paying commodities, thus reflecting the consideration of the operating characteristics of a new economic form such as the Internet.

2010年“3Q”大战爆发,2013年,广东省高级人民法院审理奇虎诉腾讯滥用市场支配地位案时,控辩双方就通过分析腾讯在即时通讯领域的用户数量、网络效应、锁定效应等考量因素上展开过交锋。比如,奇虎称腾讯QQ在即时通讯软件及服务市场中具有市场支配地位,“QQ”要求其用户在QQ和360浏览器之间二选一、在QQ软件中捆绑搭售安全软件产品等行为,属于利用QQ在即时通讯市场的垄断地位限制竞争,属于滥用市场支配地位。

In 2013, when the Supreme People's Court of Guangdong Province tried the case of the abuse of the dominant position of Qihu v. Tencent in 2010, the two sides of the defense and defense conducted a battle on the consideration of Tencent's number of users, network effect and locking effect in the field of instant communication. For example, Qihu claims that Tencent QQ has a market dominant position in the instant messaging software and service market. ``QQ'' requires its users to choose one between QQ and 360 browsers, and to bind security software products in QQ software, which belongs to the monopoly position of QQ in the instant communication market to limit competition, which belongs to abuse the dominant position of the market.

腾讯则认为,即时通讯的相关商品以及服务所含较广,包括即时通讯服务、电子邮箱的即时通讯服务、SNS社交网站的即时通讯服务、微博的即时通讯服务以及移动即时通讯服务。腾讯主张相关市场确定为整个互联网应用平台。

Tencent, for its part, believes that instant messaging has a wide range of related goods and services, including instant messaging, instant messaging for email, instant messaging for SNS social networking sites, instant messaging for Weibo and mobile instant messaging services. Tencent advocates that the relevant market be identified as the entire Internet application platform.

在经历最高人民法院二审后,最终,奇虎败诉。最高人民法院在判决书上对腾讯胁迫用户二选一的做法进行了道义上的批评。

After going through the second instance of the Supreme People's Court, Qihu finally sued. The Supreme People's Court issued a moral critique of Tencent's coercion of users to choose one.

“通过奇虎诉腾讯,我们再来看征求意见稿中的互联网行业市场支配地位的考量要素。3Q大战期间,腾讯即时通讯应用有着显而易见的规模效应,因为其用户数量远远超过竞争对手。而即时通讯又涉及双边市场,一边是QQ用户,另一边是通过QQ投放广告的广告商。微信推出后能够在短期内用户激增,排挤移动端即时通讯与社交网络应用的其他竞争对手,就是因为QQ向微信开放了通讯录,QQ好友可以一键成为微信好友。”刘旭进一步解释,当某一家互联网企业在规模效应和网络效应上比较强时,会对用户形成较强的锁定效应,以至于即便该企业的服务质量变差,用户也难以完全放弃,或者难以用其他竞品替代它。

\"Through Qihu v. Tencent, let's look again at the considerations of the dominant market position of the Internet industry in the draft for comment. During the 3Q war, Tencent's instant-messaging app had an obvious scale effect because it had far more users than its competitors. And instant messaging involves the bilateral market, one is QQ users, the other is advertising through QQ advertisers. After the launch of wechat can be a surge in users in the short term, the exclusion of mobile end instant messaging and social network applications of other competitors, is because qq open to wechat address book, qq friends can be one-click wechat friends.\" Liu xu further explained that when a certain internet enterprise is stronger in scale effect and network effect, it will have a strong locking effect on users, so that even if the service quality of the enterprise becomes worse, it is difficult for users to give up completely or replace it with other competing products.

“即便这些考量因素最终都客观上能证明某一互联网企业具有市场支配地位,但法院或者执法机构是否会因为这些因素而得出不利于该企业的结论,属于法官或者执法者的自由裁量权。而约束这些自由裁量权行使的决定性因素,可能恰恰没有写入《反垄断法》和这版征求意见稿中。”刘旭向澎湃新闻记者表示。

"Even if these considerations ultimately prove objectively that an Internet company has a dominant market position, it is the discretion of the judge or the law enforcement agency whether the court or the law enforcement agency will draw conclusions against the company because of these factors.” The decisive factors that govern the exercise of these discretionary powers may not be included in the anti-monopoly law and in the draft request for comment." Liu Xu told the surging reporters.

对于互联网领域经营者具有市场支配地位的考量要素,是否可用于其他领域?刘旭告诉澎湃新闻记者,从经济学原理看,市场进入壁垒、规模效应、网络效应、转化成本、多宿主、沉没成本等考量因素,不仅存在于互联网行业,电信、金融等传统行业也可以以此作为市场支配地位认定的考量。

Are the considerations of the dominant market position of Internet operators available for use in other areas? Liu told surging reporters that in economic theory, market entry barriers, scale effects, network effects, transformation costs, multi-host, sunk costs and other factors, not only in the Internet industry, telecommunications, finance and other traditional industries can also be considered as market dominance.

“在数据统计上,传统行业和互联网行业会存在一些差异。比如,互联网行业存在免费产品与收费产品相互关联的现象。所以,在认定某一互联网企业在免费服务市场是否具有支配地位时,可能要兼顾收费市场的分析,同时要注意避免使用依赖于价格数据的经济学分析方法来分析免费产品,以防得出错误的结论。”刘旭说。

"There are some differences in statistics between traditional and Internet industries.” For example, there is a phenomenon that free products and fee products are related to each other in the Internet industry. Therefore, when deciding whether an internet enterprise has a dominant position in the free service market, it may be necessary to take into account the analysis of the charge market, and at the same time, to avoid using the economic analysis method of relying on price data to analyze the free products in order to avoid the wrong conclusion. said Liu Xu.

据悉,广东省高级人民法院审理奇虎诉腾讯滥用市场支配地位案时,就曾用假定垄断者测试来界定相关产品市场。该项测试需假设某一企业对特定产品涨价5%到10%后,用户的流失是否会导致涨价得不偿失。但是,因为广东省高级人民法院用该方法来分析腾讯QQ的免费服务所属的市场,而非QQ会员收费上涨后的情况,受到学术界批评。对此,最高人民法院在二审判决中进行了纠正。

The Guangdong Provincial Higher People's Court heard that when it heard the case of Qihu v. Tencent's abuse of market dominance, it used the supposed monopolist test to define the relevant product market. The test would have to assume whether a company's loss of users would not be worth more than a 5 to 10% increase in the price of a particular product. However, because the Guangdong Provincial Higher People's Court used this method to analyze Tencent QQ's free service to belong to the market, rather than QQ membership fees after the rise in the situation, has been criticized by academia. In this regard, the Supreme People's Court corrected it in the second instance judgment.

2019年8月8日,《国务院办公厅关于促进平台经济规范健康发展的指导意见》发布。该指导意见中提到,国家市场监督管理总局负责“制定出台网络交易监督管理有关规定,依法查处互联网领域滥用市场支配地位限制交易、不正当竞争等违法行为,严禁平台单边签订排他性服务提供合同,保障平台经济相关市场主体公平参与市场竞争。”

On August 8,2019, the General Office of the State Council issued its guidance on promoting the healthy development of platform economic norms. The guidance noted that the State Administration of Market Supervision and Administration was responsible for \"formulating relevant regulations on the supervision and administration of network transactions, investigating and punishing illegal acts such as abusing market dominant position to restrict transactions and unfair competition in the Internet field according to law, strictly prohibiting the platform from unilaterally signing exclusive service provision contracts and ensuring fair participation of relevant market subjects in market competition in the platform economy.\"

2019年8月30日,吴振国表示,国家鼓励和支持互联网等新经济业态的发展,反垄断执法机构坚持包容审慎的原则,依法对互联网新经济领域开展竞争监管。

On August 30,2019, Wu Zhenguo said the state encouraged and supported the development of new economic formats such as the Internet, and antitrust law enforcement agencies adhered to the principle of tolerance and prudence and carried out competition regulation in the new economic field of the Internet according to law.

2019年11月5日,国家市场监督管理总局反垄断局徐乐夫副局长在杭州举行的“规范网络经营活动行政指导座谈会”上说明了电商平台的危害,明确要对“涉嫌构成垄断行为的‘二选一’行为适时立案调查”。

On november 5,2019, deputy director of the antitrust bureau of the state administration of market supervision and administration, xu lefu, explained the harm of the e-commerce platform at the \"forum on administrative guidance for standardizing network business activities\" held in hangzhou, and made it clear that \"the act of\" choosing one from two \"suspected of constituting monopoly behavior should be filed for investigation in due course.

在国际上,针对互联网领域的反垄断调查,较出名的是2017年欧盟判定谷歌滥用市场支配地位,有意将顾客导向谷歌购物搜索业务。为此,欧盟向谷歌开出创记录的亿欧元罚单。

Internationally, antitrust investigations into the Internet are better known as the 2017 European Union's ruling that Google abused its dominant market position and intended to direct customers to Google's shopping search business. To that end, the eu issued a record euro-billion-dollar ticket to google.

此外,外国反垄断执法机构审查了大量互联网企业的并购案,比如Facebook收购WhatsApp、Google收购比价网站DoubleClick。对高科技企业组织实施的限制竞争协议案件,欧美国家也进行了调查,比如,欧盟和美国都曾调查苹果公司操纵电子书价格案,德国曾经调查在线酒店预订平台限制入驻其平台的酒店,在其他平台上提供更优惠报价的行为。

In addition, foreign antitrust law enforcement agencies have reviewed a large number of mergers and acquisitions of Internet companies, such as Facebook's acquisition of WhatsApp, Google's acquisition of doubleClick, a price comparison site. European and american countries have also investigated cases of limited competition agreements imposed by high-tech companies, such as the european union and the u.s., which have investigated apple's manipulation of e-book prices, and germany, which has investigated online hotel-booking restrictions on hotels entering its platforms to offer better offers on other platforms.

“从一些案例可以看出,没有对互联网行业特殊的规定,并不妨碍外国反垄断执法机构对互联网行业开展反垄断调查,查处限制竞争行为。这一点国内与国外是一样的,不过,欧美国家的反垄断执法机构进行了不少积极的尝试,进而摸索出了更具有操作性的实践经验,并将其中一部分经过提炼,写入成文法中。比如,德国《反限制竞争法》就规定,当被收购的高科技企业营业额没有达到并购审查门槛时,可以在该高科技企业被收购时的估值达到一定门槛后,接受并购审查,从而保护该高科技企业所在相关市场的有效竞争。”

\"As can be seen from some cases, the absence of special regulations on the Internet industry does not prevent foreign antitrust law enforcement agencies from conducting antitrust investigations into the Internet industry and investigating restrictions on competition. This is the same at home and abroad. However, antitrust enforcement agencies in europe and the united states have made a lot of positive attempts to find out more operable practical experience, and some of them have been refined into statutory law. For example, germany's anti-restricted competition law stipulates that when the turnover of a high-tech company is not up to the threshold of merger review, it can be subject to merger review after the valuation of the high-tech enterprise has reached a certain threshold at the time of acquisition, thus protecting the effective competition of the relevant market of the high-tech enterprise.\"

刘旭进一步表示,企业并购、滥用市场支配地位会给市场结构带来难以逆转的改变。因此,对互联网行业的反垄断执法,不能等着《反垄断法》修订结束后,才开始立案调查。从现实情况来看,2016年,滴滴收购优步中国的反垄断调查至今悬而未决,2015年,京东对阿里滥用市场支配地位的举报没有结果,甚至腾讯、阿里巴巴、携程、美团等互联网巨头过去11年多来参与的并购,并没有像其他行业一样依法进行经营者集中反垄断申报,也没有被公开立案调查。

Liu Xu further said that corporate mergers and acquisitions, abuse of market dominance will bring irreversible changes to the market structure. Therefore, the Internet industry's anti-monopoly law enforcement, cannot wait for the end of the \"anti-monopoly law\" before starting to file an investigation. In reality, the antitrust investigation of Didi's acquisition of Uber China in 2016 is still pending, and in 2015, JingDong's report on Ali's abusive market dominance was inconclusive, and even Internet giants such as Tencent, Alibaba, Ctrip and Meituan have been involved in mergers and acquisitions over the past 11 years, and have not carried out centralized antitrust declarations of operators as other industries have done, and have not been publicly filed for investigation.

“从现行的法律法规来看,反垄断执法机构完全可以适用现有《反垄断法》的规定查处互联网巨头。但是,我国反垄断执法机构长期对互联网行业开展反垄断执法存在畏难心理,担心反垄断执法会妨碍某些互联网巨头的发展。这样的心态,一方面让互联网企业更加肆无忌惮地组织实施限制竞争,另一方面容易导致更多互联网企业在各自的细分市场上效仿这些限制竞争行为,进一步恶化我国互联网行业的竞争秩序,损害中小企业生存与发展空间。”刘旭说。

\"From the existing laws and regulations, antitrust enforcement agencies can fully apply the provisions of the existing Anti-Monopoly Law to investigate and deal with Internet giants. However, China's anti-monopoly law enforcement agencies have long been afraid of the Internet industry to carry out anti-monopoly law enforcement psychology, worried that anti-monopoly law enforcement will hinder the development of some Internet giants. Such a mentality, on the one hand, let Internet enterprises more unscrupulous organization to implement restrictions on competition, on the other hand, it is easy to lead more Internet enterprises in their respective segments of the market to emulate these restrictions on competition behavior, further deterioration of China's Internet industry competition order, damage to the survival and development of small and medium-sized enterprises space. \"said Liu Xu.


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